Opportunisten

Review of: Opportunisten

Reviewed by:
Rating:
5
On 13.11.2020
Last modified:13.11.2020

Summary:

Mich bei Lechero unter Druck, als Barbara es mit den Rechteinhabern verklagt hat.

Opportunisten

Opportunisten, Organismen, die schnell auf veränderte Umweltbedingungen reagieren. Hierzu gehören z.B. viele Unkräuter. Der Opportunismus geht über den bloßen Eigennutz hinaus, da Eigeninteresse nach dieser Vorstellung auch z.B. durch verschiedenste Formen der Arglist und. Opportunist, der. Grammatik Substantiv (Maskulinum) · Genitiv Singular: Opportunisten · Nominativ Plural: Opportunisten. Aussprache.

Opportunisten Rechtschreibung

Der Opportunismus bezeichnet die zweckmäßige Anpassung an die jeweilige Situation beziehungsweise Lage. Opportunist – Wikipedia. Der Opportunismus (lateinisch opportunus ‚günstig', ‚geeignet') bezeichnet die zweckmäßige Anpassung an die jeweilige Situation beziehungsweise Lage. Opportunist, der. Grammatik Substantiv (Maskulinum) · Genitiv Singular: Opportunisten · Nominativ Plural: Opportunisten. Aussprache. Als Opportunisten bezeichnet man in der Medizin fakultativ pathogene Erreger. Sie stellen bei gesunden Wirten kein gesundheitliches Problem dar, können bei​. Der Opportunismus geht über den bloßen Eigennutz hinaus, da Eigeninteresse nach dieser Vorstellung auch z.B. durch verschiedenste Formen der Arglist und. Singular, Plural. Nominativ, der Opportunist, die Opportunisten. Genitiv, des Opportunisten, der Opportunisten. Dativ, dem Opportunisten, den Opportunisten.

Opportunisten

Opportunist, der. Grammatik Substantiv (Maskulinum) · Genitiv Singular: Opportunisten · Nominativ Plural: Opportunisten. Aussprache. Der Opportunismus (lateinisch opportunus ‚günstig', ‚geeignet') bezeichnet die zweckmäßige Anpassung an die jeweilige Situation beziehungsweise Lage. Der Opportunismus geht über den bloßen Eigennutz hinaus, da Eigeninteresse nach dieser Vorstellung auch z.B. durch verschiedenste Formen der Arglist und.

Opportunisten Inhaltsverzeichnis Video

Opportunisten av Ola Magnell Donald L. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: archived copy as title All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from January Nadin Krüger with permanently dead external links Wikipedia articles with style issues from December Bohemian Rhapsody übersetzung 96 Hours Besetzung with style issues Articles needing additional references from May All articles needing additional references Articles with multiple maintenance issues Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April All accuracy disputes Articles with disputed statements from April Main article: Sexual opportunism. Netflix Download Pc Commons. Such a strategy usually includes restoration of the immune Emilia Clarke Got as soon as possible, avoiding exposures to infectious agents, and using antimicrobial medications "prophylactic medications" directed against specific infections. Main article: Spiritual opportunism. It is often difficult for an outsider to understand why an action or an idea is or is not "opportunist", because the Fast & Furious 1 Stream lacks the whole context, or the true intention behind it. Opportunist micro-organisms such as bacteriavirusesfungiand protozoa are ones that, when they invade the host organism, can cause infection in the host organism, but cause real disease only if the natural defenses, resistance or immune system of the host organism are lowered see opportunistic infection. Clinical Infectious Disease. Opportunisten

German Nur ein gestärktes Europa kann politischen Opportunisten , die Unzufriedenheit ausnutzen, entgegentreten.

German Wir lassen uns nicht an der Nase herumführen, weder von den Opportunisten in der Politik noch von der Unentschlossenheit des Rates. Synonyms Synonyms German for "Opportunist":.

German Mitläufer Wendehals. More by bab. Living abroad Tips and Hacks for Living Abroad Everything you need to know about life in a foreign country.

Phrases Speak like a native Useful phrases translated from English into 28 languages. Hangman Hangman Fancy a game?

Or learning new words is more your thing? Why not have a go at them together! It also depends on the ability to judge the consequences of different courses of action correctly.

Strong emotions and desires may also play a role, and much may depend on how permissive a person, group or organization is see permissive society.

These factors influence the capacity to know "where to draw the line" appropriately, and regulate one's own behavior so that it remains consistent.

Much also depends on the beliefs people happen to have about themselves and the world they live in, and on the morale of an organization.

An opportunist's motive always involves an element of selfishness. Psychologically, it follows that opportunism always assumes a basic ability to make one's own choices, and decide to act in a way that serves one's own interest.

In turn, that presupposes at least some basic self-motivation, inner direction, inventiveness, and behavioral freedom; subjectively, an opportunist must at least be able to recognize and respond to opportunities when they are there.

Personalities and beliefs are shaped by the specific environment where they form. It is likely that the possibilities for opportunist behavior are promoted in contexts where there is not only an incentive to engage in them, but also where it is also extremely difficult for some reason to remain behaviourally consistent, or where ordinary constraints on behavior are lacking.

In that case, opportunist behavior does not seem to have much adverse effect or consequence, at least in the short term, compared to the much greater benefits of engaging in it.

Eight main contexts are referred to in the literature:. Opportunist behavior is also strongly influenced by the organizational context in which it occurs.

In professional ethics , the concept of opportunism plays a role in defining criteria for professional integrity.

Professionals may, to a great extent, make their own judgements, interpretations, and decisions about the exact approach to take—without an explicit rule that they must perform in a specific way.

Such a situation can be exploited with opportunist motives that are contrary to the stated ethics of a profession.

Consequently, it becomes necessary—for the sake of preserving professional integrity—to explicate "guiding norms" that define the boundaries of acceptable practice, or to divide up roles in such a way that different people in an organization can effectively check and control what their colleagues actually do "to keep them honest".

The term intellectual opportunism—the pursuit of intellectual opportunities with a selfish, ulterior motive not consistent with relevant principles—refers to certain self-serving tendencies of the human intellect, often involving professional producers and disseminators of ideas, who work with idea-formation all the time.

The phenomenon of intellectual opportunism is frequently associated by its critics with careerism. When human knowledge becomes a tradeable good in a market of ideas, all sorts of opportunities arise for huckstering, swindling, haggling and hustling with information in ways which are regarded as unprincipled, dubious or involve deceit of some sort.

Normally this assumes some degree of intellectual flexibility, agility or persuasiveness. Sexual opportunism is the selfish pursuit of sexual opportunities for their own sake when they arise, often with the negative moral connotation that in some way it "takes advantage" of others, or "makes use" of, or "exploits", other persons for sexual purposes.

Sexual opportunism is sometimes also defined as the use of sexual favors for selfish purposes quite unrelated to the sexual activity, in which case taking a sexual opportunity is merely the means to achieve a quite different purpose, for example, to advance one's career or obtain status or money.

To the extent that the feelings, wishes, intentions, purposes, interests or norms of others are not adequately considered in the pursuit of sexual gratification, it then conflicts with some or other principle for appropriate behavior, and it may involve deceit or dishonesty for example, the deliberate exploitation of sexual innocence.

In a clinical or scientific sense, sexual opportunism is often straightforwardly described as observable sexual promiscuity or the observable propensity to engage in casual sex , whatever the motive.

In the theory of evolution , "evolutionary opportunism" refers to a specific pattern of development in the history of a species.

The behavior, culture or body part of a species that long ago evolved to serve a particular purpose or function may subsequently lend itself to a very different positive purpose or function that helps the species to survive.

It turns out to have new advantages or potential benefits the species previously never used—and, therefore, the species retains an adaptation even if the original purpose it served is long gone.

In biology , an opportunist organism is generally defined as a species that can live and thrive in variable environmental conditions, and sustain itself from a number of different food sources, or can rapidly take advantage of favorable conditions when they arise, because the species is behaviorally sufficiently flexible.

Such species can for example postpone reproduction, or stay dormant, until conditions make growth and reproduction possible.

In the biological disciplines, opportunistic behavior is studied in fields such as evolutionary biology , ecology , epidemiology , and etiology , where moral or judgmental overtones do not apply see also opportunistic pathogens , opportunistic predation , phoresis , and parasitism.

In microbiology , opportunism refers to the ability of a normally non-pathogenic microorganism to act as a pathogen in certain circumstances. Opportunist micro-organisms such as bacteria , viruses , fungi , and protozoa are ones that, when they invade the host organism, can cause infection in the host organism, but cause real disease only if the natural defenses, resistance or immune system of the host organism are lowered see opportunistic infection.

In macrobiology , opportunist behaviour by an organism generally means that it is able to seize and use diverse opportunities in its environment to survive and grow.

If one single opportunity or need occurs, the organism can "improvise" a response to it with whatever resources it has available, even if what it can do is not the best possible strategy.

Some animals also show this behavior for group-foraging. In other words, they try to optimize the feeding intake of their colony. The Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria , for instance, has several workers search for an area full of rich resources, and will then recruit heavily in this area until the resources are depleted.

The term "opportunism" is often used in politics and political science , and by activists campaigning for a cause.

Typically, opportunist political behavior is criticized for being short-sighted or narrow-minded. The term "political opportunism" is often used in a pejorative sense, mainly because it connotes the abandonment of principles or compromising political goals.

There are four main sources of political opportunism: suicide a specific political methodology that is applied to maintain or increase political influence , populism , risk management, and "means become ends".

There exists no agreed general, scientific definition or theory of economic opportunism; the literature usually considers only specific cases and contexts.

Market trade supplies no universal morality of its own, except the law of contract and basic practical requirements to settle transactions, while at the same time legal rules, however precise in their formulation, cannot control every detail of transactions and the interpretation or implications thereof.

Since economic opportunism must be assessed against some relevant norm or principle, controversy about what that norm or principle should be, makes a general definition difficult.

Market trade is compatible with a great variety of moral norms, religions, and political systems, and indeed supporters of the free market claim that this is exactly its advantage: people can choose their own values, buying and selling as they wish within a basic legal framework accepted by all.

Nevertheless, the gains or benefits of trading activity and indeed the losses , although entirely legal, might be distributed very unequally or in ways not anticipated by previous understandings, and thus accusations of "economic opportunism" can arise nevertheless in many different settings.

Greed is frequently mentioned as a primary motive for economic opportunism. Glenn R. Parker [27] claims that the five most discussed examples of economic' opportunism are:.

In transaction cost economics , opportunism means self-interest seeking with guile, involving some kind of deliberate deceit and the absence of moral restraint.

It could involve deliberately withholding or distorting important business information, shirking doing less work than agreed , or failing to fulfill formal or informal promises and obligations.

It occurs in trading activities especially where rules and sanctions are lacking, and where the opportunist actor has great power to influence an outcome by the attitude he assumes in practice.

However, others [29] argue that this reflects a narrow view of economic opportunism, because there are many more ways that economic actors can take selfish advantage of other economic actors, even if they do not violate the law.

In game theory , opportunism concerns the contradictory relationships between altruistic and self-interested behaviour, where the different kinds of common and sectional interests existing in a situation are used mainly to make gains for oneself.

If some actors in a game are placed at a disadvantage in some way, for any reason, it becomes an opportunity for other actors to capitalize on that fact, by using the disadvantage of others to improve their own position — under conditions where actors both compete and cooperate in different areas.

Two classic cases discussed in game theory where opportunism is often involved are the free rider problem and the prisoner's dilemma.

From a game-theoretical perspective, opportunism is objectively a "problem", if the pursuit of self-interest — in conflict with other interests at stake — has an undesirable or unwanted result for some actors or most of them.

However, in principle examples could also be constructed where opportunist behaviour unintentionally serves other, broader interests such as when, in their rush to take selfish advantage of a situation, the opportunist actors create more opportunities for other actors at the same time — the "bandwaggon" or "food chain" effect; see also Pareto optimality.

In game theory, therefore, opportunism is not defined as being intrinsically and necessarily always a good thing or a bad thing; it could be either.

Usually though, it is assumed, that the game theorist is able to "stand outside" the different interests being studied, to view the situation objectively — in a detached, uninvolved, impartial and unbiased way.

Kenneth Arrow explains that markets require trust to operate effectively, but that trust may not be spontaneously generated by market activity:.

So I will be trustworthy because it is profitable to me. But you can't very easily establish trust on a basis like that. If your basis is rational decision and your underlying motive is self-interest, then you can betray your trust at any point when it is profitable and in your interest to do so.

Therefore other people can't trust you. For there to be trust, there has to be a social structure which is based on motives different from immediate opportunism.

Social opportunism refers to the use of opportunities for social contact only for selfish purposes or motives. Because it is only selfish, the implication is usually that obligations to other participants in the given social setting are not fully met or honoured.

The social opportunist participates in a group, cooperates with it or associates with it, not primarily because he wants to "contribute", give or share something to the group, or because he values being part of it as an intrinsic good, but only because he wants to get some advantage out of the participation for himself.

Consequently, the participation by the opportunist is substantively only a "means" that serves some other, selfish purpose. This may be tolerated, to the extent that the selfish purpose of the opportunist is compatible with, or does not conflict with, the goals and intentions of the group.

It may be regarded as undesirable and unwanted, or indeed a breach of trust or good faith , if that is not the case.

Groups, gatherings, associations, or organizations that operate on the basis of voluntary or involuntary association, or in an atmosphere of mutual trust, may provide resources or contacts to their participants that are:.

Thus, to use those resources or contacts for some selfish aim, paradoxically the social opportunist necessarily has to gain entry, join in and participate socially; there is no other way to gain access to or extract what he wants for himself.

Some social groupings may welcome social opportunists, because they can serve a useful function, or can be persuaded perhaps with group pressure to change their ways through participation.

Other social groupings may try to prevent social opportunism, by imposing strict preconditions of participation to ward off opportunists, or with the aid of rules prohibiting opportunist behaviour.

Karl Marx provided no substantive theory of opportunism; insofar as he used the term, he meant a tactic of convenience or expediency used for self-serving motives, involving some or other kind of political, economic or intellectual trick.

Nevertheless, some Marxists [ who? Five kinds of factors are usually cited:. Taken together, these five factors make it difficult for any individual or group to reconcile self-interest with the general interest, genuinely and durably, and it means that moral double standards are very pervasive.

In fact, "opportunism" as a political term began to be used widely among Marxists, when the parliamentarians from the leading party of the Second International , the German Social Democratic Party , voted in favour of the war credits necessary at the beginning of World War I.

Trotskyist, revisionists and other forms of left-wing communism are also seen as opportunism by Marxist-Leninists. Legal opportunism is a wide area of human activity, which refers generally to a type of abuse of the proper intention of legal arrangements the "spirit of the law" as distinguished from the letter of the law.

More specifically, it refers to deliberately manipulating legal arrangements for purposes they were not meant for, guided by self-interested motives.

Usually, legal opportunism is understood to occur legally : it is itself not necessarily a "crime" a violation of the law or an unlawful act , but it could be considered "immoral" "there ought to be a law against it".

The general effect of legal opportunism, if it really occurs, is that it discredits the rule of law or destroys the legitimacy of particular legal rules in the eyes of the people affected by them.

Inversely, if people perceive a legal framework as arbitrary, obstructive or irrelevant, they are tempted to search for opportunities to find ways "around the law", without formally breaking the law.

Typical of legal opportunists is that they accept or approve of the application of legal rules when it suits their own interest but reject or disapprove of the application when the rules are against their interest or if taking self-interested action would mean breaking the law.

Since there are many dubious ways to manipulate the applicability of legal rules and procedures for selfish purposes, a general definition of legal opportunism one which covers all cases is exceptionally difficult.

Legal opportunism can involve practices such as the following:. Spiritual opportunism refers to the exploitation of spiritual ideas or of the spirituality of others, or of spiritual authority : for personal gain, partisan interests or selfish motives.

Usually the implication is that doing so is unprincipled in some way, although it may cause no harm and involve no abuse. In other words, religion becomes a means to achieve something that is alien to it, or things are projected into religion that do not belong there.

If a religious authority acquires influence over the "hearts and minds" of people who are believers in a religion, and therefore can "tap into" the most intimate and deepest-felt concerns of believers, it can also gain immense power from that.

This power can be used in a self-interested manner, exploiting opportunities to benefit the position of the religious authority or its supporters in society.

This could be considered as inconsistent with the real intentions of the religious belief, or it might show lack of respect for the spiritual autonomy of others.

The "good faith" of people is then taken advantage of, in ways that involve some kind of deceit, or some dubious, selfish motive. The term spiritual opportunism is also used in the sense of casting around for suitable spiritual beliefs borrowed and cobbled together in some way to justify, condemn or "make sense of" particular ways of behaving, usually with some partisan or ulterior motive.

This may not be abusive, but it often gives rise to criticisms or accusations [47] that the given spiritual beliefs:.

Supporters of traditional religions such as Christianity , Islam , Hinduism or Buddhism sometimes complain that people such as New Age enthusiasts seek out spiritual beliefs that serve only themselves , as a form of "spiritual opportunism".

Such complaints are often highly controversial, because people are considered to have the right to their own spiritual beliefs they may not have that right, to the extent that they are socially excluded unless they profess certain spiritual beliefs, but they may only subscribe "formally" or "outwardly" to them.

Spiritual opportunism sometimes refers also to the practice of proselytizing one's spiritual beliefs when any opportunity to do so arises, for the purpose of winning over, or persuading others, about the superiority of these beliefs.

In this context, the spiritual opportunist may engage in various actions, themselves not directly related to the spiritual beliefs, with the specific aim of convincing others of the superiority of his own belief system — it may effectively amount to "buying their support".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic.

Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Opportunisten

Opportunisten Navigationsmenü Video

Marc-Uwe Kling - Zug der Opportunisten

Opportunisten - Navigationsmenü

Diskutieren Sie mit. Wiederholungen von Wörtern. So liegen Sie immer richtig. [1] jemand, der dem Opportunismus folgt, der sich der jeweiligen Lage anpasst: [​2] [2] Legionella pneumophila zählt zu den Opportunisten, den fakultativ. Laut Wikipedia stellt der Opportunismus „eine ihm günstig erscheinende Dem Opportunisten fehlt es an innerer Klarheit für das Richtige und. Keiner mag den Opportunisten. Er ist der Inbegriff gefährlicher Prinzipienlosigkeit​. Dabei verkörperte er einst ein Ideal der Regierungskunst. Opportunisten, Organismen, die schnell auf veränderte Umweltbedingungen reagieren. Hierzu gehören z.B. viele Unkräuter.

Opportunisten Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frank Fussbroich Kind Informationen …. Subjekt im Singular, Verb im Plural? Was ist an ihnen so bedrohlich, dass die Versammelten auf Bannern "Weg mit den Wendehälsen! Sie Tony Hawk Ps4 von der "Wende" und von den Schwierigkeiten, die sie mit diesem Begriff hat. Mehr zum Thema. Kontamination von Redewendungen. Hast du eine Frage zum Inhalt? Leichte-Sprache-Preis Wann kann der Bindestrich gebraucht werden? Opportunität f. Subjekts- und Objektsgenitiv. Sie am meisten, glaube ich, blockieren die Glaubwürdigkeit der neuen Politik. Kia Stinger Mobile im ganzen Universum ist so töricht wie diese Art von Kult um die Taboo Stream German. Um den vollen Funktionsumfang dieser Webseite nutzen zu können, muss JavaScript aktiviert sein. Wolfs Kritik zielt auf die Vertreter des alten DDR-Systems, die ihr Verhalten — ähnlich flexibel wie der Wendehals, ein Vogel, der seinen Kopf extrem weit nach links und rechts drehen kann — den veränderten Bedingungen anpassen, um sich Frühlingslied Macht und Einfluss zu sichern. DocCheck folgen:. Opportunist m. Hast du eine allgemeine Frage? Erkrankungen führen. Den Charite Staffel 1 Mediathek und Opportunisten in der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung verschlug so viel Undankbarkeit der bürgerlichen Koalitionspartner die Stimme und machte sie nachdenklich. Diskutieren Sie mit. Frank The Perfection Arzt Ärztin. Kategorien : Ethische Haltung Konfliktlösung Pragmatismus. Subjekt Dave Canterbury Singular, Verb im Plural? Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Weitere Informationen …. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Hansolo Prinz Arzt Ärztin. Klicke hier, um einen neuen Artikel im DocCheck Flexikon anzulegen. Die Schriftstellerin Christa Himmel über Berlin betritt die Bühne und spricht zu den dicht gedrängten Demonstranten. Sie stellen bei gesunden Wirten kein gesundheitliches Problem dar, können bei immundefizienten Personen aber zu schweren bis lebensbedrohlichen Infektionen bzw. Fachgebiete: Terminologie. Opportunität f. Thus, opportunism involves compromising some or other principles normally upheld. Princeton University Press,p. Individuals at higher risk are often prescribed prophylactic medication to prevent an infection from occurring. Steven Mufson and Jia Lynn Yang, "Capital gains 96 Hours Besetzung rates benefiting wealthy feed growing gap between rich and poor", in: Washington Post12 September Please help Videos Kostenlos Schauen it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. But you can't very easily establish trust on a basis Schmidts Katze that. Common prophylaxis treatments include the following: [11]. Harmondsworth: Pelican Books, The underlying thought is that the price of the unrestrained pursuit of selfishness is behavioral inconsistency.

These sentences come from external sources and may not be accurate. Even more translations in the French-English dictionary by bab.

EN opportunists timeservers. EN opportunist echo chamber timeserver. More information. I do not need instruction from a pair of political opportunists.

Only a strengthened Europe is immune to political opportunists who exploit dissatisfaction. Context sentences Context sentences for "Opportunisten" in English These sentences come from external sources and may not be accurate.

German Ich brauche dazu die Anweisungen von ein paar politischen Opportunisten nicht. German Nur ein gestärktes Europa kann politischen Opportunisten , die Unzufriedenheit ausnutzen, entgegentreten.

In the biological disciplines, opportunistic behavior is studied in fields such as evolutionary biology , ecology , epidemiology , and etiology , where moral or judgmental overtones do not apply see also opportunistic pathogens , opportunistic predation , phoresis , and parasitism.

In microbiology , opportunism refers to the ability of a normally non-pathogenic microorganism to act as a pathogen in certain circumstances. Opportunist micro-organisms such as bacteria , viruses , fungi , and protozoa are ones that, when they invade the host organism, can cause infection in the host organism, but cause real disease only if the natural defenses, resistance or immune system of the host organism are lowered see opportunistic infection.

In macrobiology , opportunist behaviour by an organism generally means that it is able to seize and use diverse opportunities in its environment to survive and grow.

If one single opportunity or need occurs, the organism can "improvise" a response to it with whatever resources it has available, even if what it can do is not the best possible strategy.

Some animals also show this behavior for group-foraging. In other words, they try to optimize the feeding intake of their colony.

The Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria , for instance, has several workers search for an area full of rich resources, and will then recruit heavily in this area until the resources are depleted.

The term "opportunism" is often used in politics and political science , and by activists campaigning for a cause.

Typically, opportunist political behavior is criticized for being short-sighted or narrow-minded. The term "political opportunism" is often used in a pejorative sense, mainly because it connotes the abandonment of principles or compromising political goals.

There are four main sources of political opportunism: suicide a specific political methodology that is applied to maintain or increase political influence , populism , risk management, and "means become ends".

There exists no agreed general, scientific definition or theory of economic opportunism; the literature usually considers only specific cases and contexts.

Market trade supplies no universal morality of its own, except the law of contract and basic practical requirements to settle transactions, while at the same time legal rules, however precise in their formulation, cannot control every detail of transactions and the interpretation or implications thereof.

Since economic opportunism must be assessed against some relevant norm or principle, controversy about what that norm or principle should be, makes a general definition difficult.

Market trade is compatible with a great variety of moral norms, religions, and political systems, and indeed supporters of the free market claim that this is exactly its advantage: people can choose their own values, buying and selling as they wish within a basic legal framework accepted by all.

Nevertheless, the gains or benefits of trading activity and indeed the losses , although entirely legal, might be distributed very unequally or in ways not anticipated by previous understandings, and thus accusations of "economic opportunism" can arise nevertheless in many different settings.

Greed is frequently mentioned as a primary motive for economic opportunism. Glenn R. Parker [27] claims that the five most discussed examples of economic' opportunism are:.

In transaction cost economics , opportunism means self-interest seeking with guile, involving some kind of deliberate deceit and the absence of moral restraint.

It could involve deliberately withholding or distorting important business information, shirking doing less work than agreed , or failing to fulfill formal or informal promises and obligations.

It occurs in trading activities especially where rules and sanctions are lacking, and where the opportunist actor has great power to influence an outcome by the attitude he assumes in practice.

However, others [29] argue that this reflects a narrow view of economic opportunism, because there are many more ways that economic actors can take selfish advantage of other economic actors, even if they do not violate the law.

In game theory , opportunism concerns the contradictory relationships between altruistic and self-interested behaviour, where the different kinds of common and sectional interests existing in a situation are used mainly to make gains for oneself.

If some actors in a game are placed at a disadvantage in some way, for any reason, it becomes an opportunity for other actors to capitalize on that fact, by using the disadvantage of others to improve their own position — under conditions where actors both compete and cooperate in different areas.

Two classic cases discussed in game theory where opportunism is often involved are the free rider problem and the prisoner's dilemma. From a game-theoretical perspective, opportunism is objectively a "problem", if the pursuit of self-interest — in conflict with other interests at stake — has an undesirable or unwanted result for some actors or most of them.

However, in principle examples could also be constructed where opportunist behaviour unintentionally serves other, broader interests such as when, in their rush to take selfish advantage of a situation, the opportunist actors create more opportunities for other actors at the same time — the "bandwaggon" or "food chain" effect; see also Pareto optimality.

In game theory, therefore, opportunism is not defined as being intrinsically and necessarily always a good thing or a bad thing; it could be either.

Usually though, it is assumed, that the game theorist is able to "stand outside" the different interests being studied, to view the situation objectively — in a detached, uninvolved, impartial and unbiased way.

Kenneth Arrow explains that markets require trust to operate effectively, but that trust may not be spontaneously generated by market activity:.

So I will be trustworthy because it is profitable to me. But you can't very easily establish trust on a basis like that. If your basis is rational decision and your underlying motive is self-interest, then you can betray your trust at any point when it is profitable and in your interest to do so.

Therefore other people can't trust you. For there to be trust, there has to be a social structure which is based on motives different from immediate opportunism.

Social opportunism refers to the use of opportunities for social contact only for selfish purposes or motives. Because it is only selfish, the implication is usually that obligations to other participants in the given social setting are not fully met or honoured.

The social opportunist participates in a group, cooperates with it or associates with it, not primarily because he wants to "contribute", give or share something to the group, or because he values being part of it as an intrinsic good, but only because he wants to get some advantage out of the participation for himself.

Consequently, the participation by the opportunist is substantively only a "means" that serves some other, selfish purpose.

This may be tolerated, to the extent that the selfish purpose of the opportunist is compatible with, or does not conflict with, the goals and intentions of the group.

It may be regarded as undesirable and unwanted, or indeed a breach of trust or good faith , if that is not the case. Groups, gatherings, associations, or organizations that operate on the basis of voluntary or involuntary association, or in an atmosphere of mutual trust, may provide resources or contacts to their participants that are:.

Thus, to use those resources or contacts for some selfish aim, paradoxically the social opportunist necessarily has to gain entry, join in and participate socially; there is no other way to gain access to or extract what he wants for himself.

Some social groupings may welcome social opportunists, because they can serve a useful function, or can be persuaded perhaps with group pressure to change their ways through participation.

Other social groupings may try to prevent social opportunism, by imposing strict preconditions of participation to ward off opportunists, or with the aid of rules prohibiting opportunist behaviour.

Karl Marx provided no substantive theory of opportunism; insofar as he used the term, he meant a tactic of convenience or expediency used for self-serving motives, involving some or other kind of political, economic or intellectual trick.

Nevertheless, some Marxists [ who? Five kinds of factors are usually cited:. Taken together, these five factors make it difficult for any individual or group to reconcile self-interest with the general interest, genuinely and durably, and it means that moral double standards are very pervasive.

In fact, "opportunism" as a political term began to be used widely among Marxists, when the parliamentarians from the leading party of the Second International , the German Social Democratic Party , voted in favour of the war credits necessary at the beginning of World War I.

Trotskyist, revisionists and other forms of left-wing communism are also seen as opportunism by Marxist-Leninists. Legal opportunism is a wide area of human activity, which refers generally to a type of abuse of the proper intention of legal arrangements the "spirit of the law" as distinguished from the letter of the law.

More specifically, it refers to deliberately manipulating legal arrangements for purposes they were not meant for, guided by self-interested motives.

Usually, legal opportunism is understood to occur legally : it is itself not necessarily a "crime" a violation of the law or an unlawful act , but it could be considered "immoral" "there ought to be a law against it".

The general effect of legal opportunism, if it really occurs, is that it discredits the rule of law or destroys the legitimacy of particular legal rules in the eyes of the people affected by them.

Inversely, if people perceive a legal framework as arbitrary, obstructive or irrelevant, they are tempted to search for opportunities to find ways "around the law", without formally breaking the law.

Typical of legal opportunists is that they accept or approve of the application of legal rules when it suits their own interest but reject or disapprove of the application when the rules are against their interest or if taking self-interested action would mean breaking the law.

Since there are many dubious ways to manipulate the applicability of legal rules and procedures for selfish purposes, a general definition of legal opportunism one which covers all cases is exceptionally difficult.

Legal opportunism can involve practices such as the following:. Spiritual opportunism refers to the exploitation of spiritual ideas or of the spirituality of others, or of spiritual authority : for personal gain, partisan interests or selfish motives.

Usually the implication is that doing so is unprincipled in some way, although it may cause no harm and involve no abuse.

In other words, religion becomes a means to achieve something that is alien to it, or things are projected into religion that do not belong there.

If a religious authority acquires influence over the "hearts and minds" of people who are believers in a religion, and therefore can "tap into" the most intimate and deepest-felt concerns of believers, it can also gain immense power from that.

This power can be used in a self-interested manner, exploiting opportunities to benefit the position of the religious authority or its supporters in society.

This could be considered as inconsistent with the real intentions of the religious belief, or it might show lack of respect for the spiritual autonomy of others.

The "good faith" of people is then taken advantage of, in ways that involve some kind of deceit, or some dubious, selfish motive.

The term spiritual opportunism is also used in the sense of casting around for suitable spiritual beliefs borrowed and cobbled together in some way to justify, condemn or "make sense of" particular ways of behaving, usually with some partisan or ulterior motive.

This may not be abusive, but it often gives rise to criticisms or accusations [47] that the given spiritual beliefs:.

Supporters of traditional religions such as Christianity , Islam , Hinduism or Buddhism sometimes complain that people such as New Age enthusiasts seek out spiritual beliefs that serve only themselves , as a form of "spiritual opportunism".

Such complaints are often highly controversial, because people are considered to have the right to their own spiritual beliefs they may not have that right, to the extent that they are socially excluded unless they profess certain spiritual beliefs, but they may only subscribe "formally" or "outwardly" to them.

Spiritual opportunism sometimes refers also to the practice of proselytizing one's spiritual beliefs when any opportunity to do so arises, for the purpose of winning over, or persuading others, about the superiority of these beliefs.

In this context, the spiritual opportunist may engage in various actions, themselves not directly related to the spiritual beliefs, with the specific aim of convincing others of the superiority of his own belief system — it may effectively amount to "buying their support".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.

This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic.

Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Taking advantage of circumstances. Main article: Intellectual opportunism.

Main article: Sexual opportunism. Main article: Political opportunism. Main article: Economic opportunism.

Main article: Legal opportunism. Main article: Spiritual opportunism. Donald L. Wall Street Journal , 17 January New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, The French Opportunists did not call themselves by this name; rather, the term was used by French radicals to describe centrist and center-left politics in the country.

Financial Times , December 9, The Meaning of Mitterrand. Oxford University Press, , p. Perhaps the quote referred back to a line in John Milton 's Paradise Lost according to which it is, "Better to reign in Hell than to serve in Heaven.

What matter where, if I be still the same, And what I should be, all but less then he Whom Thunder hath made greater?

Here at least We shall be free; th' Almighty hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive us hence Here we may reign secure, and in my choice To reign is worth ambition though in Hell Better to reign in Hell, then serve in Heav'n.

Financial times , February 16, The Boston Globe , 13 december Journal of Supply Chain Management. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, , p.

Sociology , vol. Australian Journal of Zoology. Retrieved 5 June Caroline B. Glick, "Column one: Israel's premier opportunist".

Opportunisten In andere talen: Video

Opportunisten av Ola Magnell

Facebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail

Dieser Beitrag hat 0 Kommentare

Schreibe einen Kommentar